We surveyed the Ural Owl Strix uralensis macroura from 1993 to 2007 to determine the geographic range of the species in Croatia and to provide information on its density and habitat preferences. We conducted playback surveys at 365 survey points within 19 plots (total survey area 1070 km|2) systematically covering all of the major forest types in Croatia. Surveys were also carried out at 144 calling stations arranged in transects and at 133 stations scattered over larger areas. Playback surveys were conducted twice at stations in plots and along transects, and once at scattered stations. A total of 234 Ural Owl territories were located. We estimate the total population of the Ural Owl in Croatia to be 700–1000 pairs, and include an updated map of its distribution. The owls occurred in Dinaric fir–beech forests, montane beech, Sessile Oak Quercus petraea and Common Oak Quercus robur forests. The majority of the population, around 80%, was located in Mountain Croatia, where mixed Dinaric fir–beech forests predominated, at densities ranging from 1.1 to 5.4 pairs/10 km2 (average 2.3 pairs/10 km2). The highest density was found in the Plitvice Lakes National Park, in forests that have not been commercially logged for more than 50 years. Approximately 20% of the total population was found in the western part of Lowland Croatia, in the zone of beech and Sessile Oak–hornbeam forests, with average density of 0.9 pairs/ km2, as well as in Common Oak forests, with density of 0.7 pairs/10 km2. In Mediterranean Croatia the Ural Owl was found only in the mountainous zone of thermophile beech forests. There we recorded a density of 0.3 pairs/km2 and estimate the population at 15–25 breeding pairs constituting approximately 2% of total population in Croatia.